The Auragen file system.

This article on the interesting Wave Transactional File System inspired me to look up an earlier file system that also used copy on write semantics.


Anita Borg, Wolfgang Blau, Wolfgang Graetsch, Ferdinand Herrmann, and Wolfgang Oberle. 1989. Fault tolerance under UNIX. ACM Trans. Comput. Syst. 7, 1 (January 1989), 1-24. DOI=


4.3 Availability of the File System
Since a recovering file server reconstructs its buffers by reading blocks from the file system, the file system in the state as of the last sync must be available. The existence of that version of the file system is also necessary during recovery as the file server redoes requests. For example, if a file has been deleted since sync and a read request is reissued, the disk driver, and thus the recovering file server, will behave differently than the primary. Unfortunately, the contents of the disk can change between syncs, at least during the Fsync that constitutes the first phase of the sync operation.

The solution is to use a copy-on-write strategy between syncs, rather than overwriting existing blocks. Logically this corresponds to keeping two versions of a file system.3 An early version of the file system organization described here is discussed in Arnow [ 11].

There are two root nodes on disk. At any given time one of them is valid for recovery. We refer to the other as the alternate root. Associated with each root is state information (the state tables described above), the most recent being that associated with the currently valid root. Changes to the file system are done relative to a copy of the valid root kept in memory in the primary file server’s address space, and in a nondestructive manner, as seen in Figure 2(a-d). Freed blocks, which contain the old data, are added to a semi-free list, and cannot be reallocated until after the next sync. Therefore, the unmodified file system still exists rooted in the valid on-disk root node.

If a crash occurs at any time between syncs, the recovering file server is able to determine which root to use because of information sent on the primary’s last sync. It reads in the correct state information and reconstructs its buffers accordingly. Disk blocks that were used by the primary since the last sync appear to it as free blocks.

The difficult case is when a crash occurs during a sync. To see that the solution works in this case, consider the sequence of actions that take place during a sync. First, all dirty blocks except the root are written to disk, and old blocks are added to the semi-free list. Second, the state information is collected and written to the alternate state area. Third, the in-memory root is written to the alternate on disk root block, Finally, the sync message is constructed and sent to the backup. It contains the information necessary to update message queues as well as specifying which on-disk state information and root block to use on recovery.

Once the sync message has been sent, the semi-free list is added to the free list and the primary continues. Just before the sync message is sent, there are two copies of every modified data and indirect block. At any time before the sync message is sent, the old consistent state is available. Any time after it is sent, the new state and file system will be used and message queues consistently updated. An additional benefit of this organization is that the file system as a whole is considerably more robust than a standard UNIXstyle file system. Even if the entire system is shut down in an uncontrolled way as the result of multiple faults or operator error, there will always be an entire consistent file system on disk.